Posthumous fame despite early death: DGZMK President and Tübingen Professor Eugen Fröhlich

DOI: 10.53180/dzz-int.2022.0024

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Keywords: ARPA DGZMK National Socialism Tübingen dysgnathia

Introduction: To this day, the name Eugen Fröhlich stands for successful work in science and professional politics. But what was his influence on the development of dentistry and what was his relationship to National Socialism? These are precisely the questions that this article explores.

Material and methods: The study is based, among others, on primary documents of the State Archives Baden-Württemberg as well as the University Archives and the University Library of Tübingen. In addition, sources from the Federal Archives in Berlin were evaluated. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of publications by and about Fröhlich was carried out.

Results: Fröhlich left clear traces on the institutional, professional-political and scientific level: In Tübingen he had a decisive influence on the new clinic building completed in 1968 and the reorganisation of the clinic structures, and in Ulm, he initiated the establishment of today’s University Dental Clinic. He was active in professional politics as chairman of the ARPA (Working Group on Periodontology), the “Zahnärztliche Dozentenvereinigung“ (Association of Lecturers in Dentistry) and the “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde” (German Society for Dental and Oral Medicine, DGZMK), and he made scientific contributions to oral surgery, prosthodontics and periodontology. In the Third Reich Fröhlich was a member of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party) and the SA (Storm Department), among others.

Discussion and conclusion: Fröhlich is to be regarded as an important promoter of the institutional development of university dentistry: He initiated the new clinic building in Tübingen and prompted the establishment of several independent chairs in dentistry, thus becoming a model for other locations. Through his visible work in ARPA, he also brought the subject of periodontology into focus, and with the introduction of the term “dysgnathia” he set himself a professional monument. Fröhlich’s political role in the Third Reich was that of a follower. After 1945, however, he tried to construct a distance to National Socialism by means of half-truths and whitewashing.

PRWTH Aachen University, Medical School, Aachen: Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Dominik Groß

Citation: Groß D: Posthumous fame despite early death: DGZMK President and Tübingen Professor Eugen Fröhlich. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z Int 2022; 4: 204–211

Peer-reviewed article: submitted: 18.01.2021, revised version accepted: 16.03.2021

DOI.org/10.53180/dzz-int.2022.0024

Introduction

Despite his early death half a century ago (1971), the university lecturer and professional politician Eugen Fröhlich was able to develop an astonishing posthumous fame that continues to this day: in Tübingen, he is considered the decisive promoter of today’s University Clinic for Dental, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, the “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Parodontologie” (German Society for Periodontology) established the “Eugen Fröhlich Prize” in his honour in 1971, and with the term “dys­gnathia” he coined a technical term in 1954 that has endured to this day. Against this background, it seems worthwhile to subject Fröhlich’s life and professional œ uvre to a detailed analysis and to shed light on his multi-layered influence on university dentistry – on the scientific, professional-political and institutional-structural levels. A further focus is on his hitherto unexplored relationship to National Socialism in the Third Reich.

Material and methods

The study is based on files from the State Archives of Baden-Württemberg, the University Archives and the University Library of Tübingen and the card index of the Reich Medical Association (RÄK). In addition, documents from the Federal Archives in Berlin were evaluated. Scientific papers published by Fröhlich served as additional sources.

Furthermore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing secondary literature available was carried out – especially on Fröhlich as a person, on the history of the Tübingen Dental Clinic and on the development of the DGZMK in the “Fröhlich era”. Laudations and obituaries on Fröhlich, but also individual journal articles and lexical contributions were included.

Results and discussion

1. ​Eugen Fröhlich: concise biographical data and stations in life

Eugen Fröhlich (Fig. 1, [7]) was born on March 8, 1910 in Ulm [29, 43, 45, 50–52, 54–56, 60, 61], where his parents owned a house each in Frauenstraße and Grünhofgasse [45]. In his youth, he intensively pursued folding-boat and canoeing sports and even wrote his first publication on this subject in 1930 [10].

After graduating from high school, Fröhlich began studying dentistry at the University of Munich (1929). The most important academic teachers in Munich at that time were the professors Peter-Paul Kranz (1884–​1955) and Karl Falck (1884–​1957) [49] as well as the young scientists Erwin Reichenbach (1897–​1973) [35] and Maria Schug-Kösters (1900–​1975) [37], who completed their habilitation there in 1930 and 1931 respectively. Fröhlich spent the entire period of study in Munich – which was not the rule at the time –, passed the dental examination in 1933 and subsequently obtained his licence to practise dentistry. In August 1933, he undertook an extensive folding-boat tour on the rivers Rhine, Rhone, Reuss, Aare and Schaue (Skawa) [45]. In the same year, he obtained his doctorate in Munich under Erwin Rei­chenbach with the thesis “Bei­träge zur Kautschukvulkanisation” (Contributions to Rubber Vulcanisation) [11] and took up a position as a volunteer assistant. In 1934, he became a scheduled assistant in the “Kiefer­klinik” (Oral Surgery Department) at the – non-university – Rudolf Virchow Hospital (RVK) in Berlin with Martin Waßmund (1892–1956) [23, 42].

Waßmund was one of the best known and most renowned maxillofacial surgeons at that time. His “Kieferklinik” was the first in Berlin and the second on German soil after the “Westdeutsche Kieferklinik” (West German Jaw Clinic) in Düsseldorf. In 1936 Fröhlich arrived at the RVK as a “Fachzahnarzt für Kieferchirurgie” (specialist dentist for jaw surgery). The said specialist title had only been established in April 1935 and required several years of specific surgical activity as a dentist; it was renamed “Fachzahnarzt für Kiefer­krankheiten” (Specialist dentist for jaw diseases) in 1944 [57]. It was no longer awarded in the Federal Republic.

From August to October 1937, Fröhlich completed basic military training. As Fröhlich aspired to a university career, he moved to the University of Tübingen in November 1937. There he took up a position as senior dentist in the surgical and restorative department of the dental institute with Ferdinand Wasmuth (1883–1940) [48]. In 1938, he then began studying medicine in Tübingen – parallel to his dental work. This was due to the fact that until well into the second half of the century, medical schools predominantly considered dual-trained candidates for professorships in dentistry – even when they were not specifically looking to fill chairs in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Fröhlich was able to complete his second degree in 1942/43 – in the middle of the war – with the medical examination and licence to practise medicine. At this time, he was already deputy head of the department for maxillofacial and reconstructive surgery at the reserve hospital in Tü­bingen – a position he held until 1945. As early as 1940, due to Wasmuth’s unexpected death, he took on further teaching responsibilities, namely in the fields of dental surgery and restorative dentistry. Despite this workload, he was able to complete his second doctorate (Dr. med.) in 1943 – also at the University of Tübingen. He wrote his dissertation on “Erfahrungen über den plastischen Verschluss von erworbenen Oberkiefer-Gaumendefekten, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Palati­nallappenplastik” (Experiences on the plastic closure of acquired maxillary palatal defects, with special reference to palatal flap surgery) [12].

After the end of the war, Fröhlich continued to work as senior phy­sician and head of the surgical and tooth-preserving department of the Dental Clinic in Tübingen. In 1946, he also became provisional head of the Clinic. This was due to the dismissal of his superior Walter Adrion (1891–1960), who had been appointed to Tübingen in 1942 as Wasmuth’s successor [4, 46, 48]. Fröhlich acted as commissary until Hans-Hermann Rebel (1889–1967) [48] was appointed as the new director of the institute in 1947.

Term of office

Name

NSDAP Membership

Life data

1906–1926

Otto Walkhoff

+

1860–1934

1926–1928

Wilhelm Herrenknecht

+

1865–1941

1928–45, 1949–54

Hermann Euler

+

1878–1961

1954–1957

Hermann Wolf

+

1889–1978

1957–1965

Ewald Harndt

+

1901–1996

1965–1969

Gerhard Steinhardt

+

1904–1995

1969–1971

Eugen Fröhlich

+

1910–1971

1972–1977

Rudolf Naujoks

1919–2004

1977–1981

Werner Ketterl

+

1925–2010

Table 1 The presidents of the CVDZ (from 1933: DGZMK) who experienced the Third Reich as adults and their party-political orientation

After Rebel took office, Fröhlich was listed as head of the Department of Restorative Dentistry. In 1948, he achieved his habilitation in dentistry with Rebel. This was followed by the appointment as “Privatdozent” (private lecturer). In 1951, after the aforementioned specialist dentist (1936), Fröhlich also attained the “Facharzt für Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferkrankheiten” (medical specialist for dental, oral and jaw diseases), which was reserved for those who were both doctors and dentists. He thus fulfilled the increased requirements that were meanwhile placed on maxillofacial surgeons in the Federal Republic. In 1954, Fröhlich was appointed associate professor and in 1958 he completed the final step of his university career in Tübingen with his appointment as full professor of dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine and director of the Dental Institute [48]. Fröhlich remained in this position until autumn 1971.

In September 1971, during the 6th Lake Constance Conference in Lindau, he collapsed due to a “cerebral stroke” [61] “in the middle of a discussion he was leading” [56]. He was taken to Tübingen University Hospital, where he died about three weeks later, on October 2, 1971, “de­spite intensive medical efforts” [54]. Fröhlich was buried in the Bergfriedhof (mountain cemetery) in Tübin­gen [52, 61].
 

2. ​Fröhlich’s scientific and professional significance

Eugen Fröhlich was without a doubt one of the most successful and influential dental university teachers of his time. Accordingly, there was no lack of attempts to call him away from Tübingen: for example, in 1958 he received a call to the vacant chair in Würzburg (as successor to Hermann Wolf [1889–1978] [39]), whereupon those responsible in Tübingen also offered him a full professorship, so that he ultimately decided to remain in Tübingen. In 1965, he was offered another full professorship and directorship in Münster as well as a professorship at the University of Bonn, both of which he declined.

These successes, however, strengthened his position in Tübin­gen. There he was able to push through an impressive new clinic building in the 1960s. He exerted influence on the construction and set himself a monument with the building “already in his lifetime” [61]. He also subjected the internal structures of “his” clinic to far-reaching changes: While he was originally the only full professor at the Tübingen Dental Clinic, at his instigation three departments of the clinic were now expanded into further, each independent directorates and full professorships. In 1968, Fröhlich published a journal article introducing the innovative building complex and the concept underlying its construction. As could be read there, the complex included scientific laboratories, library rooms, a lecture hall and demonstration rooms. He emphasised the national importance and pioneering character of the building: “New jobs have been created in Tübingen with the new clinic, which will help to alleviate the impending shortage of dentists. Once the new clinic is fully staffed, twice as many students can be taught […   ]. Two chairs have already been filled, and the appointment process is underway for a third. The Tübingen Clinic is the first in Germany to be built according to the recommendations of the ‘Wissenschaftsrat’ (Science Council) on the principle of dividing the discipline into four parts” [26]. He also founded the “Eugen Fröhlich Fund” in 1968/69 to provide financial support for the Tübingen Dental Clinic [59].

It is noticeable that Fröhlich was omnipresent in German university dentistry in the 1960s, despite his intensive activity in Tübingen [61]: from 1960 to 1970 he served as president of the German ARPA (since 1971: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Parodontologie [German Society for Periodontology, DGP], today DG PARO) [3], and from 1961 to 1965 he was also chairman of the dental lecturers’ association. In 1969, Fröhlich won the election of the DGZMK president against Carl-Heinz Fischer (1909–1997) [43, 44], a full professor from Düsseldorf, in a competitive vote [9]. Fischer was also considered a professional “heavyweight”: at that time, he was Dean of the Düsseldorf Medical Faculty and also on the verge of becoming Rector (University President), which he took up the following year. Fischer was visibly affected by this defeat and reported in his memoirs that he had only lost to Fröhlich “by two votes”. Fischer also referred to Fröhlich in many other places in his memoirs, implicitly underlining Fröhlich’s contemporary significance [8, 9].

It is certain that Fröhlich was a strong advocate for the further development of university dentistry and for the recognition of dentistry as an academic discipline. He was excellently networked – within and outside dentistry. For example, he was an academic teacher and confidant of Herbert Veigel (*1922), who served as president of the “Bund Deutscher Zahnärzte” (Association of German Dentists, BDZ) (today: German Dental Association, BZÄK) from 1969 and in this function was an important partner for the DGZMK and university dentistry. In addition, Fröhlich was a member of the board of the Baden-Württemberg Dental Association from 1960 to 1964 [47]. He also had a say in Baden-Württemberg’s university policy. In 1970, for example, he succeeded in initiating a planning committee “for the establishment of a center for dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine in Ulm”, which he himself chaired [54] – although he died shortly after this committee was established. Besides, in 1970, at the dental conference in Bad Nauheim, he proposed the establishment of independent chairs of periodontology at all university dental clinics in Germany. All German university professors of dentistry, oral medicine and maxillofacial surgery present in Bad Nauheim agreed to the proposal [28]. However, only a few such chairs were to be established in the following years. In addition, Fröhlich wrote a far-sighted “Exposé on the future direction of the DGZMK” in 1971 [29, 43]. He did this in his capacity as President of the DGZMK together with his then fellow board member Erich Körber (1925–2020) – the first holder of the Chair of Prosthodontics in Tübingen, which was established at Fröhlich’s instigation. In the exposé, both called for closer cooperation between the DGZMK and the aforementioned BDZ. BDZ and DGZMK – the most important professional and scientific organization of the dental profession – should no longer compete but join forces for the benefit of German dentistry and thus create added value: “The opportunities that present themselves must be viewed without bias. On both sides […  ] mistrust, prejudices must be reduced and more understanding awakened” [29, 43]. The BDZ president Veigel wrote an obituary for the suddenly deceased Fröhlich only a few months later, in which he emphasized and paid tribute to Fröhlich’s importance as a provider of impulses for professional policy: “During the two years of my term of office, Eugen Fröhlich was significantly involved in all essential consultations on the future of the profession, especially with regard to new study and examination regulations. His advisory activities in the Science Council and in the European Commission for the harmo­niza­tion of dental education and establishment within the EEC have also had an extremely beneficial effect” [61]. And Fröhlich’s student Willi Schulte (1929–2008), in another obituary, expressed the view that Fröhlich had always devoted all his energy to the further development of dentistry and that his life had been “without any exaggeration a sacrifice for these tasks”; moreover, “there was little time left for other things” [56].

Fröhlich was also active and respected as a scientist. In 1954, for example, he introduced the technical term “dysgnathia”, which is still in use today, into the specialist vocabulary [50, 58]. In fact, Fröhlich’s first mainstay was maxillofacial surgery: like Karl Schuchardt (1901–1985) [31] and Alfred Rehrmann (1910–​1979) [1], he saw himself primarily as a student of the maxillofacial surgeon Martin Waßmund, to whom he also “owed the most, in his own opinion” [61]. Accordingly, Fröhlich made several contributions to maxillofacial surgery, especially until the middle of the century, and went public with corresponding publications [13, 14, 18]. Fröhlich considered Waßmund “one of the most successful oral surgeons of his time” and noted in an obituary of his mentor: “From an insignificant, small dental outpatient clinic of the Rudolf Virchow Hospital in Berlin, Waßmund developed and continuously expanded a ‘clinic for oral and maxillofacial surgery of international reputation’.” [23].

Fröhlich’s work on (surgical) prosthodontics was in turn influenced by his first doctoral supervisor, the prosthodontist and wartime surgeon Erwin Reichenbach [35], who had recommended him to Tübingen in 1937 and later advanced to vice president of the National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in Halle. Both became friends and Reichenbach paved the way for Fröhlich’s admission to this academy [9]. Contributions to prosthodontics and the interactions of dental restorations can be found in Fröhlich’s work at all times [17, 19, 20], but he gained the great­est attention as an author at the end of his life with the textbook “Die Planung der prothetischen Versorgung des Lückengebisses” (The Planning of Prosthetic Restoration of the Gap Denture), which he published together with Erich Körber in 1970 and which was reprinted several times even after Fröhlich’s death [27].

Another focus of his publications was dental radiology; there he devoted himself primarily to intraoral radiographs and their diagnostic significance [16, 21, 22]. Finally, Fröh­lich’s contributions to periodontology received special attention. Although he was a generalist rather than a specialized periodontist, he published regularly in this field [15, 22, 24, 25]. Through this – and even more through his enormous presence as ARPA president for many years – he brought periodontology as a discipline into the professional eye.

Fröhlich published about 150 technical papers until 1971. Besides, he could look back on several offices, honors and awards at the end of his life: In addition to the aforementioned functions as chairman of the German ARPA, the dental lecturers’ association and the DGZMK, as well as his activities for the Science Council and the European Commission, he was co-editor of the journal “Deutsche Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde” (German Dental, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine) from 1962 to 1971. In 1962 he received the “Alfred Rowlett Award” of the “Fédération Dentaire Internationale” (FDI) and in the same year the “ARPA Suisse” appointed him a corresponding member. In 1963/64 he was Dean of the Medical Faculty in Tübingen. In 1965 he was conference president of the DGZMK, and one year later he was appointed honorary member of the “ARPA Internationale”. In 1967 he was admitted to the Leopoldina, and in the same year he received the annual best prize of the DGZMK. Finally, the “crowning glory of his international activities” was the scientific chairmanship of the international FDI meeting in Munich in 1971 [61].
 

3. Between fiction and truth: Fröhlich’s relationship to National Socialism

Fröhlich joined both the NSDAP and the SA during the Third Reich. He became a member of the SA in 1938 and of the NSDAP in 1939 (Party No. 7,302,237). Fröhlich was 28 and 29 years old at this time. During the same period, he joined two other Nazi organisations: the “NS-Volks­wohlfahrt” (Nazi People’s Welfare) (on May 11, 1938) and the “NS-Ärztebund” (Nazi Doctors’ Association) (on March 8, 1940) [6, 45, 53, 62].

There is no doubt that Fröhlich was classified as politically loyal – not least because of his memberships in these organisations. For example, there is a statement by Karl Pieper (1886–1951), the feared leader of the Reich’s dental lecturers, who, as an ardent National Socialist, watched over the political attitude of the (prospective) university teachers of dentistry [33]. In 1943, Pieper judged Fröhlich, who was only 33 years old at the time and had not yet habilitated, as “still too young” for an appointment. However, he did not express any doubts about Fröhlich’s political stance, although such comments were the core element of many of Pieper’s statements and thus caused some careers to stumble [5, 33].

The sources consulted also reveal that Fröhlich staged himself after 1945 as a person who had been highly critical of National Socialism. He presented this self-image in two different contexts: in the “Spruchkammerverfahren” (denazification proceedings) against his former superior Walter Adrion as well as in his own denazification trial.

As far as the proceedings against Adrion were concerned, Fröhlich appeared as a prosecution witness together with his colleague from Tü­bingen, Rainer Strack (1912–1969). Strack had been head of the department of prosthetics and orthodontics in Tübingen from 1943 and was thus a colleague of equal rank to Fröhlich, who, as mentioned, was head of the surgical and restorative department. Both stated that their superior Adrion was “consciously National Socialist” and “also gave particular emphasis to this attitude” [46]. In fact, Adrion had joined the NSDAP and the SA, among others, in 1933, and after his appointment to Tübingen he became “chairman” of the Nazi lecturers’ association at the dental institute there [4].

But in the end, the statements of Fröhlich and Strack remained without consequences for Adrion: In a revision procedure initiated by the latter (1949), the testimonies of the two department heads were given less weight and their former superior Adrion was finally classified as a mere follower. The final reasoning stated: “If the senior dentists Dr. Strack and Dr. Fröhlich concluded from the strict discipline and order in the clinic that the person concerned was susceptible to National Socialist ideas, this conclusion […  ] is not compelling […  ]. Although the person concerned was certainly a follower of the Nazi world view until the end of the war, he did not make outwardly activist use of this attitude” [46].

More decisive than the question of the effects of the statements on Adrion is the fact that Fröhlich morally elevated himself above Adrion with his actions and incriminated him. After all, Fröhlich was not only a party member himself, but had also belonged to several other Nazi organisations. Fröhlich was obviously pursuing the goal of putting himself in political opposition to Adrion and thus demonstrating a personal distance to National Socialism. The same statement by Strack is to be classified differently: There were no indications of party membership in his case, nor were there any other signs of a political burden. Strack was thus one of the dentists who worked successfully at the university in the Third Reich even without political affiliation [41].

In view of his appearance in the trial against Adrion, it is not surprising that Fröhlich took a similar position in his own denazification trial, which he was forced to go through as a former party member: he stated that he had an inner distance from National Socialism. According to this, he had applied for admission to the SA on May 1, 1938 solely “at the urging of the lecturer leader”. He was then “transferred from my SA formation to the party on December 1, 1939 without any action on my part […  ], so I could not prevent my entry into the party” [45]. This “automatic” party admission claimed by Fröhlich was also stated by some former party members in the post-war period, but it does not correspond to the usual practice of joining the NSDAP. Party admission was tied to the explicit application of the aspirant. The admission procedure followed precise rules, which were strictly observed. For example, it was indispensable to sign the admission form in person and hand it in at the responsible NSDAP local group. There were no “automatic” or even unnoticed admissions. The leader of the local group also had to document his consent on the application form and send it to the party headquarters in Munich. Admission to the NSDAP was only official when one received the membership card from the Reichs­leitung (the highest party-political office in the NSDAP).

In addition, Fröhlich cited strong religious ties – specifically: his closeness to the “Bekennende Kirche” (Confessing Church) – and saw this as evidence of his claimed distance from Nazi ideology [45]. He also emphasised that his remaining at the university would not have been possible without the aforementioned memberships. But his statements are already refuted by a look at the curriculum vitae of his senior colleague Rainer Strack, who was almost the same age: although he kept his distance from the Party until 1945, he had received the Miller Prize in 1938 – the highest science prize of the DGZMK, which had been politically centralised in 1933 – and in 1943 he had achieved the appointment as a civil servant senior dentist and head of the Department of Prosthetics and Orthodontics in Tübingen [41].

Despite his exculpation strategy, Fröhlich did not succeed in denazification quickly. When the procedure had still not been completed in the early summer of 1948, he sent a letter of request, dated June 4, 1948, to the Spruchkammer chairman (cf. Fig. 2; [45]): “Since a denazification decision is likely to be necessary for the conclusion of my habilitation procedure, I sincerely request that my denazification application be given preferential treatment” [45]. In September 1948, he was denazified as a “follower” (Group IV) [45] – and the path to his habilitation and thus to an impressive post-war career was clear.

Conclusions

Due to his diverse functions and professional initiatives, Fröhlich had a strong influence on the structural development of the discipline of dentistry. He emerged above all as the promoter of the institutional four-way division of university dentistry: the new clinic building in Tübingen and the establishment of four independent chairs there – including the first full professorship for orthodontics in Germany, held by Dorothea Dausch-Neumann (1921–2013) [38] – became a model for other clinic locations. Through his visible work in the ARPA, he brought periodontology into focus, and with the introduction of the term “dysgnathia” he stayed in the memory of the professional world.

Fröhlich’s tragedy – and also the tragedy of organised university dentistry and the still unconsolidated discipline of periodontology – was that he died at the height of his influence and initiatives and thus could not complete his work. Above all, the modernisation of the DGZMK that he envisaged was therefore reserved for his successor Rudolf Naujoks (1919–2004) [40]. However, after Fröhlich’s death, two developments occurred which, from today’s perspective, can be seen as a legacy and at the same time kept Fröhlich’s memory alive:

In 1971, the German ARPA posthumously established the “Eugen Fröhlich Prize” and in 1982, after many years of preparation and various retarding moments, the Ulm Dental Clinic (today: Centre for Dental, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine) was founded, as initiated by Fröhlich. Fröhlich did not live to see the opening of the clinic in his native city, but one of his academic students – Reinhold Mayer (1929–2020) [34] – became the founding professor and medical director of the Clinic for Dental Preservation and Periodontology there.

While Fröhlich stood out among his colleagues from a professional point of view, he behaved in a politically conformist manner during the Third Reich. In the years up to 1945, he served the Nazi state as a party member and by joining several parties. Accordingly, he can be classified as a political follower, as were almost 10% of all Germans and around 45% of physicians [30, 32, 36]. There are no indications that he critically reflected on his behaviour after 1945. Rather, he tried to maintain a personal distance from National Socialism by making an incriminating statement against his superior Walter Adrion and by half-truths and embellishments in his own denazification proceedings.

By decision of 18 September 2020, the “Eugen Fröhlich Prize” was renamed the “DG PARO Science Prize”.
 

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest within the meaning of the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
 

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  21. Fröhlich E: Zähne und Kieferhöhle im Röntgenbild auf Grund vergleichender histologischer und röntgenologischer Betrachtung. Zahn-Mund-Kieferheilk Vortr 1955; 16: 64–80
  22. Fröhlich E: Die röntgenologische Diagnose der marginalen Zahnbett­erkrankungen und ihre klinische Auswertung. Dtsch Zahnärzte-Kal 1956; 15: 110–122
  23. Fröhlich E: Martin Waßmund zum Gedächtnis. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 1956; 11: 481–484
  24. Fröhlich E: Entwicklung und Morphologie der Weichgewebe des Paradontiums. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 1958; 13: 221–240
  25. Fröhlich E: Nomenklatur der Zahnbetterkrankungen. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 1967; 22: 769–773
  26. Fröhlich E: Zahnmedizin in Tübingen. Attempto 1968; 25/26: 64–71
  27. Fröhlich E, Körber E: Die Planung der prothetischen Versorgung des Lückengebisses. Hanser, München 1970
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  30. Groß D: Zahnärzte als Täter. Zwi­schenergebnisse zur Rolle der Zahnärzte im “Dritten Reich”. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 2018; 73: 164–178
  31. Groß D: Karl Schuchardt – der wirkmächtigste Nachkriegs-Chirurg. Zahnärztl Mitt 2018;108: 1682–1683
  32. Groß D: Die Geschichte des Zahnarztberufs in Deutschland. Einflussfaktoren – Begleitumstände – Aktuelle Entwicklungen. Quintessenz, Berlin 2019, 157–173
  33. Groß D: Karl Pieper (1886–1951) – Vom NS-Führer zum “Mitläufer”. Zahnärztl Mitt 2020; 110: 600–602
  34. Groß D: In memoriam. Prof. Dr. med. dent. Reinhold Mayer†. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 2020; 75: 125
  35. Groß D: Erwin Reichenbach (1897–1973). Leben und Werk unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner politischen Rolle im “Dritten Reich” und der DDR. MKG Chir 2020; 13: 278–290, doi.org/10.1007/​s12285-020-00269-z
  36. Groß D: Vom Einzelfall zum Kollektiv: Abschließende Zahlen und Einordnungen zur Täterforschung im Nationalsozialismus. Zahnärztl Mitt 2020; 110: 2317–2322
  37. Groß D: Maria Schug-Kösters (1900–1975) – Erste habilitierte Zahnärztin in Deutschland. Zahnärztl Mitt 2021; 111: 263–266
  38. Groß D: Dorothea Dausch-Neumann (1921–2013) – Die erste Lehrstuhlinhaberin in der deutschen Zahnheilkunde. Zahnärztl Mitt 2021; 111: 714–717
  39. Groß D: Hermann Wolf (1889–​1978) – Versatile DGZMK president and temporary member of the Nazi Party. DZZ International 2022; 4: 134–142
  40. Groß D: Moderniser without a Nazi past: life and work of DGZMK president Rudolf Naujoks (1919–2004). Dtsch Zahnärztl Z Int 2022; 4: 212–219
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Univ.-Prof. Dr. med. Dr. med. dent. Dr. phil. D. Gross

RWTH Aachen University Medical School, MTI II, Wendlingweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, dgross@ukaachen.de

Photo: University Hospital Aachen


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(State: 14.11.2022)

Latest Issue 6/2022

In Focus

  • Accuracy of computerized optical impression making: the influence of different scan paths
  • Instruction on interdental cleaning – a survey among dental professionals
  • Posthumous fame despite early death: DGZMK President Eugen Fröhlich