The Journal Impact Factor 2021

DOI: 10.53180/dzz-int.2022.0017

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Keywords: 2021 EbM Bits JIF Journal Impact Factor criticism ranking

Department of Oral Health & Medicine, University Center for Dental Medicine Basel UZB: Jens C. Türp, DDS, Dr med dent, MSc, M.A., Professor

Citation: Türp JC: The journal impact factor 2021. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z Int 2022; 4: 145–148

DOI.org/10.53180/dzz-int.2022.0017

 

On June 30, 2022, the Clarivate™ media group published the new rankings of scientific journals with impact factor in its Journal Citation Reports. For the 2021 reporting year, 9,588 of the 9,626 journals included have a journal impact factor (JIF).

The dental journals that had a JIF in 2021 are listed below. For comparison, the 20 scientific journals with the highest JIF are contrasted. The overview is concluded with current critical comments on the JIF.

JIF

rank

2021

Journal

JIF

2021

JIF 2020

JIF rank

2020

1

International Journal of Oral Science

24.897

6.344

4

2

Periodontology 2000

12.239

7.589

2

3

Journal of Dental Research

8.924

6.116

5

4

Journal of Clinical Periodontology

7.478

8.728

1

5

Japanese Dental Science Review

6.468

5.093

11

6

Oral Oncology

5.972

5.337

7

7

Dental Materials

5.687

5.304

8

8

International Endodontic Journal

5.165

5.264

10

9

Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice

5.100

5.267

9

10

Clinical Oral Implants Research

5.021

5.977

6

11

Journal of Dentistry

4.991

4.379

14

12

Journal of Periodontology

4.494

6.993

3

13

Journal of Endondontics

4.422

4.171

16

14

Journal of Prosthodontic Research

4.338

4.642

12

15

Journal of Adhesive Dentistry

4.309

2.359

51

16

Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research

4.259

3.932

18

17

Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

4.148

3.426

25

18

Molecular Oral Microbiology

4.107

3.563

22

19

Oral Diseases

4.068

3.511

23

20

Journal of Periodontal Research

3.946

4.419

13

21

Caries Research

3.918

4.056

17

22

BMC Oral Health

3.747

2.757

35

23

Journal of Dental Sciences

3.719

2.080

59

24

International Journal of Oral Implantology

3.654

---

---

25

Clinical Oral Investigations

3.606

3.573

21

26

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation

3.558

3.837

19

27

Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine

3.539

4.253

15

28

Dentomaxillofacial Radiology

3.525

2.419

49

29

Journal of Prosthodontics – Implant, Esthetic, and Reconstructive Dentistry

3.485

2.757

36

30

Journal of the American Dental Association

3.454

3.634

20

31

Dental Traumatology

3.328

3.333

27

32

International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

3.264

3.455

24

33

Progress in Orthodontics

3.247

2.750

37

34

Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery

3.192

2.078

61

35

Journal of Applied Oral Science

3.144

2.698

38

36

European Journal of Orthodontics

3.131

3.075

29

37

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America

3.130

2.802

33

38

Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry

3.040

2.843

31

39

Implant Dentistry

3.000

2.454

47

40

International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

2.986

2.789

34

41

International Journal of Implant Dentistry

2.984

2.384

50

42

Operative Dentistry

2.937

2.440

48

43

International Journal of Computerized Dentistry

2.923

1.883

67

44

International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants

2.912

2.804

32

45

Odontology

2.885

2.634

40

46

Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal

2.883

2.047

62

47

Gerodontology

2.750

2.980

30

48

British Dental Journal

2.727

1.626

79

49

International Journal of Dental Hygiene

2.725

2.477

46

50

American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

2.711

2.650

39

51

Angle Orthodontist

2.684

2.079

60

52

Brazilian Oral Research

2.674

2.203

---

53

Archives of Oral Biology

2.640

2.633

41

54

International Dental Journal

2.607

2.512

45

55

Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research

2.563

1.826

72

56

Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology

2.538

2.589

44

57

European Journal of Dental Education

2.528

2.355

52

58

Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

2.489

3.383

26

59

Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

2.480

1.569

80

60

Journal of Oral Facial Pain & Headache

2.457

1.871

69

61

Dental Materials Journal

2.418

2.102

58

62

Pediatric Dentistry

2.378

1.874

68

63

Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics – Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie

2.341

1.938

64

64

European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

2.327

2.231

56

65

Journal of Dental Education

2.313

2.264

55

66

Australian Dental Journal

2.259

2.291

54

67

Journal of Public Health Dentistry

2.258

1.821

73

68

Head & Face Medicine

2.246

2.151

57

69

Acta Odontologica Scandinavica

2.232

2.331

53

70

International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry

2.227

1.840

71

71

Quintessence International

2.175

1.677

76

72

European Journal of Oral Sciences

2.160

2.612

43

73

Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

2.136

1.895

66

74

Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science

2.086

2.614

42

75

British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

2.018

1.651

78

76

Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics

1.989

1.904

65

77

Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal

1.915

1.433

83

78

Oral Radiology

1.882

1.852

70

79

International Journal of Prosthodontics

1.785

1.681

75

80

American Journal of Dentistry

1.748

1.522

82

81

Australian Endodontic Journal

1.719

1.659

77

82

Cranio – The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice

1.670

2.020

63

83

Journal of Oral Science

1.630

1.556

81

84

Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry

1.595

1.256

87

85

Journal of Oral Implantology

1.546

1.779

74

86

Korean Journal of Orthodontics

1.361

1.372

84

87

Journal of the Canadian Dental Association

1.348

1.316

86

88

Seminars in Orthodontics

1.340

0.970

89

89

Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

1.338

1.065

88

90

Community Dental Health

1.330

1.349

85

91

Australasian Orthodontic Journal

0.269

0.226

90

92

Implantologie

0.127

0.125

91

Table 1 Journal impact factor (JIF) for 2021 for the 92 journals listed in the category Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine with comparison of the previous year’s JIF.

Year

JIF

2021

24.897

2020

6.344

2019

3.047

2018

2.750

2017

4.138

2016

3.930

2015

2.595

2014

2.531

2013

2.029

2012

2.719

2011

1.411

2010

0.815

Table 2 Development of the JIF of the International Journal of Oral Science between 2010 and 2020.

Included journals and general development

The Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine category includes 92 journals with a JIF, one more than in previous years due to

• the new inclusion of the International Journal of Oral Implantology and

• the journal Brazilian Oral Research, which was included too late in the previous year,

• while eliminating the title European Journal of Oral Implantology (renamed International Journal of Oral Implantology as of January 2019) (Table 1).

The 2021 JIF values range from 0.127 (the German-language journal Implantologie) to – almost incredibly for dental journals – 24.897 (International Journal of Oral Science), tripling the peak value of the previous year (8.728, Journal of Clinical Peri­odontology; see Table 2 for the evo­lution of this journal). Although the JIF-related arithmetic mean of all dental journals increased from just under 2.9 in 2020 to just almost 3.4 in 2021, 24 of the 91 journals have a lower JIF than in the previous year.

 

JIF rank 2021

Journal

JIF 2021

1

CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

286.130

2

Lancet

202.731

3

New England Journal of Medicine

176.079

4

Journal of the American Medical Association

157.335

5

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology

113.915

6

Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

112.288

7

Nature Reviews Immunology

108.555

8

Lancet Respiratory Medicine

102.642

9

British Medical Journal

93.333

10

Nature Medicine

87.241

11

Lancet Microbe

86.208

12

World Psychiatry

79.683

13

Nature Reviews Microbiology

78.297

14

Lancet Psychiatry

77.056

15

Nature Reviews Materials

76.679

16

Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

73.082

17

Lancet Public Health

72.427

18

Chemical Reviews

72.087

19

Lancet Infectious Diseases

71.421

20

Nature Reviews Cancer

69.800

 

9,588

Sen-I Gakkaishi (Journal of the Society of Fiber Science and Technology, Japan)

0.016

Table 3 The 20 scientific journals with the highest journal impact factor (JIF) and the bottom of the ranking of 2021. Note: Nineteen of the top 20 journals are from the biomedical field.

To “rank” the JIF of dental journals in the overall picture of all scientific journals, Table 3 shows the 20 journals with the highest JIF values.

“The citation frequency is often equated with the quality of a journal. However, this is incorrect. The citation frequency can only be used for statements about the impact of a scientific article, less for the content-­related quality of the results.”
Dr. Jasmin Schmitz, head of publication consulting, Publisso, ZB MED – Information Centre for Life Sciences, Cologne, Germany [6]

Criticism of the JIF

The numerous weaknesses and shortcomings of the JIF have been extensively documented in the literature (e.g., [3, 8]) and in the JIF-specific analyses published annually in this journal and the Deutsche Zahn­ärztliche Zeitschrift since 2015. In the past 12 months, criticisms have included (Table 4):

  • The calculation of the JIF as an arithmetic mean,
  • the lack of differentiation between the various publication types (research articles, reviews, clinical recommendations, etc.),
  • the manipulative-distorting influence of self-citations and citation cartels,
  • the misconception that contributions published in JIF journals are automatically of high quality or that only articles published in JIF journals are of high quality,
  • the lack of comparability among different disciplines,
  • the misconception that the JIF is a precise value.

Citation

Source

“One of the most commonly noted constraints of the JIF is its calculation as a mean. This mode of data representation has the potential limitation of a small number of highly cited manuscripts disproportionately influencing the JIF. Therefore, if the number of citations per article is a skewed distribution, a metric based on a calculation of a mean could render an evaluation that is not representative of the majority of the articles included in the calculation.” 

Daugherty et al. [1]

“The other most commonly described constraint of the JIF is an aggregate index encompassing many different types of publications that include not only original research articles but also reviews, guidelines, and statements, which have higher citation metrics.”

Daugherty et al. [1]

“For example, a journal (A) scored almost a double increase in its IF during just 4 years. It turned out that in a review published in another journal (B), out of 490 references 445 were citations of articles published by journal A and all of them during 2 years from which the journal’s IF was calculated. Incidentally, three of the four authors of that review were on the editorial board of journal A. While self-citations are very easy to identify, citation cartels are difficult to track and can do the most harm to scientometrics based on manipulated data.”

Górski et al. [2]

“In view of the above, we can conclude that the evaluation of the quality of publications based exclusively on the impact of the journal in which the article was published is, in addition to being imprecise, unfair in the case of the nursing discipline, given the limited possibility of publishing in this type of journal for our group.”

Salamanca Castro [5]

“Although the JIF refers to a journal as a whole and says nothing about the influence or even the scientific quality of individual articles, it is often used to assess the research performance of scientists. This is not the only reason why the JIF is often criticized. It is also highly dependent on the subject area and thus not comparable across disciplines; in addition, it only takes into account the past two years in each case. The calculation is not very transparent and often not independently reproducible.”

Open Access Network [4]

“To be able to cite journals by rank, JIFs are given to three decimal places and without confidence intervals or error bars. However, this data accuracy is an illusion. Measuring citation counts is not an exact science, as has been shown in several examples in bibliometrics, e.g., Vanclay, 2012.”

University of Zurich [7]

Table 4 Critical statements on the JIF

Tab. 1–4: J. C. Türp

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest as defined by the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

References

  1. Daugherty A, Hegele RA, Lu HS, Mackman N, Rader DJ, Weber C: Web of Science’s citation median metrics overcome the major constraints of the journal impact factor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2022; 42: 367–371
  2. Górski A, Zimecki M, Krotkiewski H: Journal impact factor and self-citations. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2021; 69: 21
  3. Larivière V, Sugimoto CR: The Journal Impact Factor: A brief history, critique, and discussion of adverse effects. arXiv:1801.08992v2 2018 URL: arxiv.org/abs/1801.08992:
  4. Open Access Network: Qualitätssicherung und Impact-Messung. 2022. URL: open-access.network/infor­mieren/open-access-grundlagen/qualitaetssicherung-und-impact-messung
  5. Salamanca Castro AB: Calidad de una revista científica: mucho más que impacto. Nure Inv 2022; 19(117): 1–2
  6. Schmitz J: Journal Impact Factor und Alternativen. 2017. URL: www.publisso.de/open-access-beraten/faqs/journal-impact-factor-und-alternativen/
  7. University of Zurich, The Main Library‘s Blog.: 2021 Journal Citation Reports with 2020 Impact Factor. URL: www.uzh.ch/blog/hbz/2021/07/​08/2021-journal-citation-reports-with-2020-impact-factor/
  8. Vanclay JK: Impact factor: outdated artefact or stepping-stone to journal certification? Scientometrics 2012; 92: 211–238

Jens C. Türp

DDS, Dr med dent, MSc, M.A., Professor

Department of Oral Health & Medicine

University Center for Dental Medicine Basel UZB

Mattenstrasse 40

CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland

jens.tuerp@unibas.ch

Photo: Basilisk, Basel


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